Author Archives: Rita LeRoy

Give a Third. Get a Third.

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Rita's Monthly Gardening Tips,  March 3, 2016

It is a commonly known fact that you can thank a pollinator for one out of three bites of food you eat. We understand that we need pollinators. We hope for them to create our wonderful bounty of edible crops. We wait for them. We worry about if and when they will come. The service that pollinators provide is part of a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with plants. The bee ensures plant species survival by moving around the male pollen to the female flower. In exchange, the bee receives nectar and/or pollen to ensure it’s own survival. The pollinator doesn’t know that it is helping the plant and the plant doesn’t know that it is helping the pollinator. Each species is oblivious of the other and is only concerned about its own needs.

In this respect, maybe it comes natural to humans to be focused on our own needs and oblivious to the needs of the rest of nature. But we do so at our own peril. Since one third of our food crops are dependant on pollinators then it is the least that we can do to give them one third of our growing space for their food and shelter.

For example, if your garden is 100 square feet in size, plants rich in pollen and nectar should cover at least 33 square feet. If your garden is 1000 square feet pollinator plants should cover 330 square feet. If the total of your front and back yard is 5,000 square feet than a minimum of 1,650 square feet should be planted in pollinator plants.

The honeybee is the poster child for pollinators, but there are many other pollinators. There are 4,000 species of native bees in North America alone. Other pollinators of flowering plants include butterflies, beetles, flies, moths, and other insects. By extension, many other insects provide pest control for our food crops helping them to grow to maturity without being decimated by pests or the need for pesticides. For all these garden allies we need to give back to them. Following are lists of easy to grow plants in different categories that will create a mutually beneficial relationship between the flowers, the pollinators, and YOU! Remember Give a Third, Get a Third.

10 CA Natives:

Achillea-Yarrow

Asclepias-Milkweed

Ceanothus-California Lilac

Eriogonum-Buckwheat

Eschscholzia-California Poppy

Lupinus-Lupine

Monardella-Coyote Mint

Penstemon

Ribes-Currant

Salvia-Sage

10 Herbs:

Catnip

Cilantro

Dill

Lavender

Lemon Balm

Marjoram

Mint

Oregano

Rosemary

Thyme

10 Perennial flowers:

Agastache

Buddleja

Coreopsis

Echinacea

Gaillardia

Rudbeckia

Perovskia-Russian Sage

Scabiosa-Pincushion Flower

Verbena

Veronica

10 Annual flowers:

Borage

Calendula

Centaurea

Cerinthe

Cosmos

Helianthus-Sunflower

Lobularia-Sweet Alyssum

Marigold-Signet

Nigella-Love in a Mist

Tithonia-Mexican Sunflower

It’s Time for Peas

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Rita's Monthly Gardening Tips,  February 5, 2016

There are three types of peas:

  1. English or garden peas (also known as shelling peas since the peas are removed from the pod and only the peas are eaten.)

One variety is Wando. It produces well in hotter, dryer conditions than most peas typically can handle. It would be good for a late spring or late summer planting when it can get hot suddenly. It produces short vine.

Another variety is Frosty, which, as you can imagine from the name, can tolerate the colder range of temperatures and grows on a relatively short vine of 30 inches.

  1. Chinese or snow or sugar peas (picked when the pods have reached full size but flat and the peas are still very small. Pod is eaten.)

Two common varieties are Oregon Sugar Pod and Dwarf Grey Sugar. Both grow on short vines. Oregon Sugar Pod is noted for having multiple disease resistance and comes as an organic seed.

  1. Snap peas (picked when both pod and seeds are mature, pod is rounded and peas are full size; both are edible and eaten as a whole).

Sugar Snap is a tried and true variety of good old-fashioned peas whose plants grow up to 6 feet tall.

Step 1: Prepare your soil

Peas need soil with plenty of organic amendments and good drainage. If you have an already-established garden plot, your garden will be ready to go. This is not a good time of the year to till or cultivate heavy, clay soil because the winter rains have already made them too wet. Tilling in wet soil risks soil structure damage. Add organic matter to your soil a few weeks before you intend to plant to give the initial chemical reaction of decomposition time to mellow, or use well-rotted compost. If your soil does not have enough organic matter or does not drain well enough, consider planting peas in raised beds or containers. Use bagged potting soil rather than garden soil for containers.

Step 2: Prepare a pea trellis (depending on type of peas you choose)

Be creative and resourceful in using recycled materials to build a pea trellis. You could use your tomato cages, tall garden stakes, fencing, or even pruned tree branches. You could also use three 2x4x6’s to make a frame and twine to make the trellising. See http://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/how-to-build-a-trellis-for-growing-peas/index.html for an example. The advantages of using a trellis are that the plants will have less chance of getting a disease, will take up less space, and will grow more fruit if they are supported. Even the shorter varieties grow better with a trellis. It just doesn’t need to be as tall with the shorter varieties.

If planting in a container such as half a wine barrel, you could put several approximately six-foot-long stakes in the soil and tie them together at the top teepee style. Or you could put a couple of stakes deep down into the soil and attach a piece of lattice of about 3 feet wide and 5­–6 feet tall. You could also put your container next to a fence or trellis and train the little tendrils to grow vertically.

Although instructions for planting dwarf or bush peas say they don’t need to be trellised, it still helps to keep them up off the ground. Whichever type of trellis system you choose, keep in mind these points:

  • The plants should be easy to reach
  • The trellis should be durable enough to last a couple of months with the weight of the peas growing on it
  • It should be easy to disassemble if you need to when it’s time to move on to your warm season crops

Step 3: Choose your seeds

Get seeds of the type of peas you enjoy eating. Dwarf peas take up less space, need little trellising, and do well in containers but don’t produce as many peas.

You can buy an inoculant that helps with nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation happens when legume roots partner with specific bacteria. This symbiotic relationship offers both of them more chance to do what all living organisms ultimately want to do—reproduce. The bacteria enter the roots, enabling the plant to absorb nitrogen from the air. Both live happily ever after.

But, alas, soil chemistry is a complicated story. If your soil is rich in nitrogen or you use a nitrogen fertilizer regularly, the happy little partnership between legume root and bacteria may not have much purpose. On the other hand, if you have not planted peas in your soil before, there may be insufficient bacteria present for nitrogen fixation to occur. Adding inoculant will increase the odds of successful growth of this year’s peas and that of future years’ peas. In organic gardening, chemical fertilizers are not used to supply nitrogen, so creating healthy, life-promoting soil with compost and using an inoculant is a good way to go.

Plant your pea seed directly in the soil. Plants grown from seeds adjust better to your climate and growing conditions. You can presoak your seeds for an hour or so to decrease the time it takes for them to germinate. On their own they can take up to almost two weeks to germinate.

The seeds can be planted anytime in January and February in this area. You can increase your yield and space out your harvest by planting in 2- to 3-week successions and/or by planting more than one variety with different maturity dates.

The window of pea opportunity is rather limited. They want to grow in the early spring when the unseen forces of nature are calling to them. Any earlier and it’s too cold; any later and it’s too warm. Keep in mind that the more clay in the soil, the longer it takes for soil to warm, and raised beds warm faster than ground planting. Peas want neither a very cold soil nor a warm soil. If planting in rows, making your rows run north and south increases sun exposure and air circulation. Plant your seeds 2 inches apart and 1 inch deep.

When it comes time to harvest, good luck trying to make it into the kitchen with them. If you do, let me know your favorite recipe or way to prepare them.

Happy Gardening!

 

Out with the Old and In with the New

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Rita's Monthly Gardening Tips,  January 5, 2016

January is the time to reflect on your garden’s past challenges and successes. Look at your garden space on paper noting what went well and what didn’t during the previous growing season. Make a plan for this upcoming growing season. Some common items on the new garden plan may be:

  • Rotate vegetable crops
  • Try growing a new vegetable
  • Remove perennial plants that don’t suit your needs
  • Grow more drought tolerant, pollinator-friendly plants

The biggest trick to successful gardening is growing plants that have the same requirements for sun, water, soil, space, and temperature that match what your garden can provide.

Another important factor is timing. Most vegetables have a relatively short window of time that they can be planted in order to grow well. Cool season seedlings are planted in February/March and again in August/September. If you are planting transplants from seeds, plant the seeds about six weeks before the best time to plant them out as transplants. Warm season crops are planted in April/May. Make a calendar for the year for when to plant seeds and/or transplant the vegetables that you would like to have. Since there is an overlap of time for when cool season and warm season vegetables will occupy space in your garden, have dedicated cool season and warm season space in your garden. For more information read Golden Gate Gardening: The Complete Guide to Year-Round Food Gardening in the San Francisco Bay Area & Coastal California by Pamela Peirce

Also, consider the design of your garden such as where to plant what. Know how tall plants get so you can either avoid casting shade on other plants or incorporate the shade to benefit other plants as it best fits your garden plan.

In decades gone by companion planting was encouraged as a way to partner plants that “liked” each other. A lack of scientific evidence has made this procedure to be debatable. http://puyallup.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/403/2015/03/companion-plantings.pdf

A method of companion planting, or more correctly referred to as plant associations, that is more scientifically proven to be beneficial to your garden, is to include plants in your garden that provide nectar and pollen to pollinators and other beneficial insects. Here is a link that provides more information on beneficial insects: http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/QT/beneficialinsectscard.html. The following is a link to help you select good pollinator plants for your garden http://pollinator.org/guides.htm. Also, check out http://www.xerces.org for more great information on supporting beneficial insects in your garden.

Happy Gardening!

Trees for Wildlife

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Rita's Monthly Gardening Tips,  December 6, 2015

December is the perfect time to think about trees. In fact, the United Kingdom has the first week of December as National Tree Week to celebrate the beginning of the best time to plant trees. This is a much better time for folks living in California then the Arbor Day time of late April. The ground is just wet enough to make it easy to dig and the winter rains will help to establish the roots. While we’re thinking about trees let’s consider how trees impact the wildlife in our urban setting. Trees play a huge role in providing habitat for bees, birds, and butterflies. The Pollinator Partnership is an international organization whose mission is to promote the health of pollinators, critical to food and ecosystems, through conservation, education, and research. In 2016, their annual poster used for outreach and education shall focus on the many benefits that trees provide to pollinators, such as:

  • The canopy of the tree provides protection for all wildlife (evergreen canopies do so year round)
  • The branches provide a home for birds to perch and nest in
  • The leaves can offer food for some of our most beautiful butterflies such as the western tiger swallowtail.
  • The flowers of trees can give crucial nectar and/or pollen to a host of bees, hummingbirds, and butterflies
  • The fruit is a major part of the diet of many songbirds

Examples of trees that are locally adapted and create excellent habitat for wildlife are listed below. Select trees that are an appropriate size for your yard and meet the water, sun, and soil conditions that you have and they will give you and wildlife many years of beauty and enjoyment.

Trees as host plants for butterflies (a host plant is one that a butterfly can lay its eggs on because it is the only or one of the only plants its caterpillars can eat to complete its life cycle):

Salix spp. Willow

Aesculus californica California Buckeye

Platanus racemosa California Sycamore

Populus Cottonwoods, Poplars

Betula Birch

Prunus ilicifolia Cherry

Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’

Trees as a source of nectar/pollen for butterflies:

Aesculus californica California Buckeye

Trees as a source of nectar for hummingbirds:

Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’

Chilopsis linearis Desert Willow

Salix spp. Willow

Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’

Arbutus mensiesii Pacific Madrone

Platanus racemosa Western Sycamore

Sambucus Mexicana Blue Elderberry

Heteromeles arbutifolia Toyon

Aesculus californica California Buckeye

Trees as a source of fruit/seeds for birds:

  • Quercus Oaks
  • Pinus Pines
  • Acer macrophyllum Big Leaf Maple
  • Acer negundo californicum California Box Elder
  • Alnus rhombifolia White Alder
  • Arbutus menziesii Pacific Madrone
  • Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’
  • Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’
  • Elderberry
  • Prunus ilicifolia Hollyleaf Cherry
  • Heteromeles arbutifolia Toyon
  • Myrica californiica Pacific Wax Myrtle

Trees as a source of nectar/pollen for bees:

  • Fruit trees
  • Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’
  • Salix Willow
  • Arctostaphylos manzanita ‘Dr. Hurd’
  • Tilia cordata Little Leaf Linden
  • Vitex Chaste tree

 The links below provide further descriptions of these trees and the benefits they provide to wildlife

http://homeguides.sfgate.com/trees-nectar-pollen-honeybees-65869.html

http://www.gardeners.com/how-to/attracting-butterflies-hummingbirds/7265.html

www.helpabee.org

http://nipomonativegarden.org/plantinfo/trees.shtml

http://www.redbud-cnps.org/Hummingbird%20Plants%20short.pdf

http://nababutterfly.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/ca_bayarea.pdf

http://www.pollinator.org

Happy Gardening!